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Lehigh University Libraries - Library Guides

IPD Citation Style v3.0: Sample Paper with References

Use of the IPD citation style and RefWorks with examples

Sample Paper

This is a sample document incorporating references in the IPD citation style.  You can use One Line/Cite View or install the RefWorks Write-N-Cite plugin in MS Word. Write-N-Cite appears in the Add-Ins tab in Word, not in the References tab. To use RefWorks in conjunction with Word, first open your RefWorks account. If you have a RefWorks Folder assigned to your IPD project, open that Folder. This makes it easier to locate the references you need in your Word document. Alternatively, you can use the “Search RefWorks” function to find any reference by any term (author, keyword, etc.). The Write-N-Cite popup window has an option called “Always on top.” If you check that option, Word and Write-N-Cite will be on your screen together.

When you want to add a citation to your document, place your curser at the reference point. From your RefWorks list of documents, click on the “Cite” link. RefWorks will insert a “placeholder” for the actual reference into the Word document. The placeholder will look like {{1234 Author, I. I. 2001}}; this is just enough information for you to be sure you have the correct reference.

In this paragraph there are six examples.  The first reference type is a book by a single author.1 The second is a book by two authors.2 You should check any multi-word author names for correct formatting. The third reference type is an article (or chapter) in a book.3 In this example, although there are four authors of this article, only the first three, followed by et al., are given in the References list. This is part of the IPD style and will be true of any publication that has four or more authors. You should include all authors in your RefWorks entry, however, in case another citation style uses a different author list. The fourth reference type is an article from the print version of a magazine.4 The fifth example is the same article, but found in an online article service5 and the sixth is the same article, found online from the publisher.6

In this paragraph are the next four example references. The seventh reference is a newspaper article obtained in print.7 and the eighth is the same article found online.8 The ninth is a paper presented at a conference which was published in print form.9 Notice that it looks the same as an article in a book because a proceedings paper is a special type of book article. The tenth example is a patent.10

In this paragraph, reference examples eleven through fifteen are listed. Reference type eleven is a print standard.11 The twelfth reference is a technical report.12 The thirteenth type is a master’s thesis, another type of book, in print form.13 The fourteenth reference type is a lecture.14 The fifteenth example is a phone communication.15

Reference example sixteen is a meeting with a specific person.16 Example seventeen is a site visit.17 Note that the “author” of this meeting is listed as “anonymous” in the placeholder but “anonymous” does not appear in the References list. If there is no personal or organizational author in the RefWorks entry, it defaults to "anonymous" as a placeholder but renders the correct form in the References list. Reference example eighteen is a document issued by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency.18  Example nineteen is a brochure.19

In this paragraph, reference examples twenty through twenty-four are illustrated. Number twenty is an email.20Number twenty-one is a web site Number seventeen is a web site that includes it’s “last updated” date.21  Number twenty-two is a web site that has no date information.22 Number tweny-three is a web site that only gives the year, not the full month/day/year, update.23 Number twenty-four is a “subpage” in a web site, in this case a section from a handbook.24

In this last paragraph are three online articles. The first is from a magazine that, because it only appears online, has no volume, issue, or page numbers, so the “page” is the URL.25 The next two are the same journal article. This online journal uses an “article number” and/or a DOI (a “digital object identifier”).26, 27 The final two references are software28 and a video.29

Once your paper is completed, make sure that you save the final version, then click on the Bibliography tab in Write-N-Cite. Next, make choose IPD as the “Output Style,” then click on Create Bibliography. If you accidentally used the wrong reference for a point, merely highlight and delete it, then insert the correct citation placeholder. You can add, delete, and correct as often as needed and RefWorks will revise the References list accordingly each time you use the Create Bibliography option.

After you've created the References list, examine it for any oddities. Check for author name formatting, correct capitalization of proper nouns, missing punctuation and so forth. RefWorks is a good tool but cannot tell if you've omitted a period or added an extra one. In this sample document, the References list begins right after the final paragraph. Normally you would insert a page break between the end of the document and the beginning of the References list.




[1]     E. R. Tufte, Visual Explanations: Images and Quantities, Evidence and Narative. Cheshire, CT: Grapics Press, 1996.

[2]     J. H. Watt and S. A. van den Berg, Research Methods for Communication Science. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon, 1995.

[3]     J. W. DuBois, S. Schuetze-Coburn, S. Cumming, et al., "Outline of discourse transcription," in Talking Data; Transcription and Coding in Discourse Research (J. A. Edwards and M. D. Lampert, Eds.). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1993, pp. 45-89.

[4]     R. C. Carter, "Search time with a color display: Analysis of distribution functions," Human Factors, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 302-304, 1982.

[5]     R. C. Carter, "Search time with a color display: Analysis of distribution functions," Human Factors, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 302-304, 1982. Available Dialog, ERIC, ED 298637.

[6]     R. C. Carter, "Search time with a color display: Analysis of distribution functions," Human Factors, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 302-304, 1982. Available

[7]     M. Tali, "Plastic explosives blamed for train crash," New York Times, sec. 2, p. 11, January 3, 1989.

[8]     M. Tali, "Plastic explosives blamed for train crash," New York Times, sec. 2, p. 11, January 3, 1989. Available

[9]     P. Leone, D. L. Gillihan, and T. L. Rauch, "Web-based prototyping for user sessions: Medium-fidelity prototyping," in Proc. 44th Int. Technical Communications Conf. (Toronto, Canada, May 11-14, 1997), pp. 23-24.

[10]     A. A. Husseiny, E. Liang, and R. Rodriguez, "Reliable fuzzy fault tolerant controller," US Patent 4,985,824, October 30, 1987.

[11]     International Organization for Standardization, "Conical fittings with a 6% (Luer) taper for syringes, needles, and certain other medical equipment - Part 1: General Requirement," ISO 594-1, February 3 1995.

[12]     K. Kraiger and M. S. Teachout, "Application of generalizability theory to the Air Force job performance measurement project: A summary of research results," Human Resources Laboratory, Air Force Systems Command, Brooks Air Force Base, Texas, Tech. Rep. AFHL-TR-90-92, July 1991.

[13]     S. Mack, "Desperate optimism," M. A. thesis, University of Calgary, Canada, 2000.

[14]     J. Ochs, IPD, Class lecture, "Applying concept generation to your project," Wilbur Powerhouse, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA, February 28, 2008.

[15]     J. Kleinfelter, Director of Research, Herr Industrial Inc., Phone communication, March 16, 2006.

[16]     J. Kleinfelter, Director of Research, Herr Industrial Inc., AHA meeting, Chicago, IL, November 13, 2006.

[17]     B. Braun, Site visit, Bethlehem, PA, November 13, 2008.

[18]     U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, The Inside Story: A Guide to Indoor Air Quality. Doc. #402-K-93-007, April 1995.

[19]     D. Cheng, "Chemotronix XT manometer," brochure, Asheville, NC: Chemotronix, 1974.

[20]     B. Zeiss, Project Engineer, Kryoclean Inc., Email communication, April 5, 2006.

[21]     U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, "Sources of indoor pollution," Updated September 27, 2006, Available

[22]     "Leffingwell & Associates: Flavor & fragrance industry leaders," Available

[23]     Lenntech Water Treatment and Air Purification, "Water treatment chemicals," Updated 2006, Available

[24]     "Membrane processes for wastewater treatment," Joint Service Pollution Prevention Opportunity Handbook, Available

[25]     P. Koemer, "Solyndra's totally tubular solar cells perfect for commercial applications," Jetson Green, 2008. Available

[26]     T. Brauner, O. Taanila, A. Tranberg, et al., "Temperature dependence of standard model CP violation," Physical Review Letters, vol. 108, no. 4, paper no. 041601, 2012. Available

[27]     T. Brauner, O. Taanila, A. Tranberg, et al., "Temperature dependence of standard model CP violation," Physical Review Letters, vol. 108, no. 4, DOI:10.1103/PhysRevLett.108.041601, 2012. Available

[28]     Granta Design Limited, CESelector 2009, digital database program, Cambridge, UK.

[29]     ABC News Productions, "The Deep Dive - Part 1 of 3," Nightline, July 13, 1999. Available