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Citation Searching in Google Scholar
The citation information in Google Scholar is extracted from the scholarly journal articles within the Scholar database, and from the U.S. patents contained in the Google Patents database (linked below). Users have the option to eliminate the patents as the source of citation data and/or the option to include citations from legal journals and opinions from the federal and state courts. If a publication has been cited by these sources, it will contain a "Cited By Link" in its entry; clicking on that link will display the citing journal articles and patents (and the court opinions, if selected)
How to Find Citation Counts via Google Scholar and "Who is Citing Whom"
- Go to Google Scholar.
- Select Advanced Scholar Search (down arrow on the search box).
- Enter the appropriate search terms. Enter just enough information to find what you need - do not fill in the complete search form.
- Click on the Search Scholar button.
- Locate the correct article in the search results list.
- If the article was cited by others, you will see a "Cited by" link at the bottom of the record. Click this link to view who has cited this item. For more information about searching, access Google Scholar's Help page below.
- Google Scholar does not index all scholarly articles; therefore, some articles citing the item under study may not be counted.
- Google Scholar includes citations from an array of sources in its cited by calculation, including PowerPoints and Word documents, and gives everything an equal rank.
- Author names can be tricky to search and the results can vary greatly depending on how the name is entered; we recommend searching only the author's last name and combining that with the main title in quotations.
- Variants in how the item is cited can result in more than one entry for the item under study.
- The term "citation" in brackets [CITATION] at the beginning of an entry, indicates that the full text of the item is not accessible through Google Scholar. To see the full text of the item, use ASA (for books or article title) or under the E-Journals tab on the library homepage, search for specific ejournals by TITLE or ISSN number (for journal title).
Software & Programs for Google Scholar Citation Data
Google Scholar Citation Counter
Use this gadget for total citation counts, the number of cited publications and the H-index for an author.
IMPORTANT: Please note that this tool is as accurate/inaccurate as Google Scholar itself. It is important to check and refine the data that the gadget performs calculations on by clicking on the "view publications" link. If the returned page shows inaccurate results then the search terms in the gadget need to be refined until the returned page is as accurate as possible.
Publish or Perish (PoP)
PoP is downloadable software providing enhanced analysis of Google Scholar citation data.
CIDS (Citation Impact Discerning Self-citations)
CIDS will analyze publications for self-citation data; this includes the h- and g-indexes calculated both with all cites and then without self-cites. The service is free, however, limitations are many. According to the FAQ page, only one search per email is allowed. There is also a limit of 200 items (in the tutorial, it says 500 items) for the analysis. The analysis takes about 1 minute per item to calculate.
Google Scholar Citations provides a simple way for authors to keep track of citations to their articles. You can check who is citing your publications, graph citations over time, and compute several citation metrics. You can also make your profile public, so that it may appear in Google Scholar results when people search for your name.
Google Scholar - Useful Links
Google Scholar's Ghost Authors, Lost Authors, and Other Problems
Why the popular tool can't be used to analyze the publishing performance and impact of researchers
by Peter Jasco, professor and chair of the Library and Information Science Program in the Department of Information and Computer Sciences at the University of Hawai'i at Manoa.