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Lehigh University Libraries - Library Guides

ES001 Introduction to Environmental Studies: Citations

Guide for Climate Change at Copenhagen Reacting to the Past game

What Is Plagiarism?

Plagiarism is using someone else's work without giving him or her credit.  "Work" includes text, ideas, images, videos, and audio. In the academic world, you must follow these rules:

  • When you use the exact words, you must use quotation marks and provide a citation.
  • When you put the information into your own words, you must provide a citation. (See Paraphrasing tab.)
  • When you use an image, audio, or video created by someone else, you must provide a citation.

Plagiarism could happen with a sentence, a paragraph, or even just a word! For example, Stephen Colbert, of the television show "The Colbert Report," made up the word "truthiness," meaning something that sounds like it should be true.  If you say in a paper something has a ring of "truthiness"- you should cite Colbert.  If someone else's words catch your interest, you should cite them. 

Plagiarism is a serious academic offense. Penalties can range from failing the assignment to being expelled from the University. See the Lehigh University Code of Conduct site  (Article III) for information on the University Student Conduct system and the expectations of Academic Integrity.

Citation Style Guides

More about Citation and Plagiarism

Citation Checklist

1) Are you using your own independent material (i.e., material that reflects your own thoughts, opinion)?

□ Yes            □ No

If Yes, OK. If No, you need to CITE.

2) Are you using common knowledge (i.e., something that everyone knows)?

□ Yes            □ No

If Yes, OK. If No, you need to CITE.

3) Are you using someone else’s independent material (i.e., material NOT your own thoughts)?

□ Yes            □ No

If Yes, you need to CITE. If No, OK.

4) Do all the quotations exactly match their source?

□ Yes            □ No

If Yes, well done! If No, you need to make sure they are correctly matched.

5) Have you used your own words and sentence structures for every paraphrase and summary related to another’swork?

□ Yes            □ No

If Yes, well done! If No, you need to make sure you use quotation marks around the author’s/authors’ words.

6) Have you included an in-text citation for every paraphrase and summary related to another’s work?

□ Yes            □ No

If Yes, well done! If No, you need to make sure you create an in-text citation for each reference to another’s work, even when you put that idea into your own words.

7) Does your list of References include all the sources you have mentioned in your paper?

□ Yes            □ No

If Yes, well done! If No, you need to make sure all of the sources you mention in your paper are listed on the References page.

Source: Erin K. Elgin, Business Instructor on Iowa City Campus as published in the Kirkwood Community College Libraries' Plagiarism LibGuide.