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Lehigh University Libraries - Library Guides

BIOS 090 Fall 2022 The Biology of Human Disease and Disease Therapy

Citing your Work

 There are hundreds of citation styles. Here are steps on how to cite.

  • Select a citation style to use. One starting place is Lehigh library guide Citation Guides and Style Manuals.
  • Keep in mind the distinction between *in-text citations*, which appear in the text and point to items in the *reference list* of publications you are citing. See what the style guide says about this distinction.
  • In a style guide, look for examples relating to the specific type of publication you are using. For example, if you are citing a journal article, look for examples that the style guide presents and follow the example closely. Same for a book, and so on for other types of publication.
  • Another trick is to see whether a library database or Google Scholar enables you to render citations in your style of choice. For example, if you put the title of your article(s) in Google Scholar, run a search, then look for the double apostrophe. This will bring up the citation in a number of styles    Check to see if the style was rendered accurately by checking the style manual. The same point applies to using citation manager software,


  • For assistance, contact the science librarian.
  • You may want to consult Youtube videos for any coverage they offer of particular styles.
  • Look for information like this, about how to cite images.Follow guidelines in the box below  James Cook University Australia  APA (7th Edition) Referencing Guide:  Using visual works in assginments and class presentations.

Fair Use


See this video on youtube about copyright, fair use, and public domain [from]

You can use media for educational purposes if:

  • You don't share/publish it publicly on the internet
  • You only use a small piece of the work (ex. a clip of a song)
  • You got it legally (ex. didn't pirate it or get around a paywall)
  • You don't provide a copy that allows others to avoid paying for their own copy
  • You should cite anything that you use for a class, research project, or other academic work - because of academic integrity, not because of copyright.

[Thanks to the scholarly communications librarian Carrie Baldwin-SoRelle for above.]