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BIOS/MATH 130 Spring 2023

Introduction to class exercise

The goal of this hands-on exercise is to give you practice in:

  • finding reliable background information sources
  • searching for scholarly journal articles for use in your paper and presentation.  
  • putting the articles and background sources into the "CSE" style.

To do the exercise, follow the steps below in order.  At the bottom of the page are some post-assignment recommendations. 

The exercise is due 11:10 am Tuesday, April 11. Submit the exercise via Course Site.

The science librarian can help with questions.

Download the exercise

Here is a link to the template for your next assignment. The library exercise starts on p. 2. This is a group assigment so the professor will only need one submission from your group, but group members are expected to contribute.

 You will use it to record your answers. Use it in tandem with the instructions in the boxes below. Below are notes that help you do the exercise.

Important: question numbers below in [brackets] cross-reference the question numbers in the exercise.

Find two background information sources

[questions 1 & 2]

DO THIS PART AFTER THE CLASS.

BELOW, BACKGROUND INFO SOURCES SHOULD BE RELATED TO YOUR FINAL PROJECT DATASET. IF YOUR GROUP HASN'T DECIDED ON A DATASET YET, THEN PICK ONE OF THE DATASETS YOUR GROUP IS POTENTIALLY INTERESTED IN AND LOOK UP ARTICLES FOR IT.

Go to the "Background Information Sources" page of this guide and read the sub-page there titled "Introduction". Then follow the instructions in the exercise sheet that you downloaded. When doing the exercise, select resources from the "Background Information Sources" page.

Make sure to read "Evaluating Web Resources" to get ideas on how to evaluate what you find on Google.

Find two scholarly articles

Review the page of this guide "Scholarly versus Popular Articles".  This will give you a sense of how scholarly articles differ from popular articles, such as magazine or newspaper articles. 

Then you will locate two articles using Medline (via Web of Science). (Should you want a refresher, here is a direct link to the Medline part of the tutorial you viewed before the class.)

Make sure you see the following:


If you do not see the Medline database, click on the the drag down menu for "Select a Database" and select Medline. 

NOTE: Medline (via Web of Science) and Web of Science are distinct databases. It just happens that you can get to Medline via the Web of Science interface.  Again, use Medline for this exercise. 


[question 3] 

USE MEDLINE TO FIND A SCHOLARLY ARTICLE DIRECTLY RELATED TO YOUR FINAL PROJECT DATASET.  IF YOUR GROUP HASN'T DECIDED ON A DATASET YET, THEN PICK ONE OF THE DATASETS YOUR GROUP IS POTENTIALLY INTERESTED IN.

Design a search that draws on the search techniques discussed in class.  You can also see the information here.

Techniques to use when you set up a search statement:

  • Truncation. Example: test* 
  • Logical operators (AND, OR). Example: test* or positiv*
  • Phrase searching. Example: "johns hopkins"   

You can put these together into one search. In the example below, parentheses help to "nest" mini-searches that are processed first, then added to the larger search. Make sure "Topic" is selected as the search type, as in this example:



Click "Search".

Go to the left of the search results. Here you see a column of filters you can use to narrow your search. Under Publication Types, select "Journal Article": 


 


 

You may have to narrow or broaden your search by removing or adding terms. Tips:

  •  Use other filters that appear on the left

  • "MeSH" terms and qualifiers may appear (example below) in the Medline record for an article you like. They describe what an article is about. Use them for ideas about how to refine your search when "topic" is selected, as it was in the example we started with. There are other ways to use these terms, but we'll keep it simple! 

Example of MeSH Terms in a Medline record:



Make sure that the article is not a "review" or a "systematic review" article . You'll look for a review article later.  To do so, when you look at the entire search record that comes up, you should see "journal" but don't see "review" or "systematic review" listed as a document type in the full record that you come up. For example, you might see the following in the full record (items circled), in which case this will not be one of your two records.

 


When the exercise asks you to find out how many times this article has been cited by other items, you'll be looking for what's circled in this example::

 

 


You will need to indicate for the first article and the two others you find whether you can get directly to the full text of the article. Recall the tutorial discussion about Lehigh Links: Clicking on that button, you will either get access directly to the full text; if not, you would have to use ILLiad to order a copy of the article. You don't need to order a copy via ILLiad for this assignment).

 


[question 4]  FIND A SECOND ARTICLE USING THE FIRST ARTICLE.

After you find this article, use it to help you find a second article. This second article should be related in topic to the first article; here are ways to make sure they are related in this way:

  • In the search result for the first article, click on the "times cited" link. You just saw that above. This is a powerful way to find the second article. One item will not cite another unless it is related in subject to the first.
  • click on "view related records" to the right after you go into a record. 
  • use keywords or MeSH terms from that first article to tweak your search and find the second article
  • see if the author of the first article has published a second, related article.

Find a review article

[question 5] FIND A THIRD ARTICLE--THIS TIME A REVIEW ARTICLE, AGAIN RELATED CLOSELY TO THE TOPIC OF THE FIRST AND SECOND ARTICLES YOU FOUND ABOVE.

A review article discusses the literature about a topic. It is a good place to find more bibliography but also to develop further your background knowledge of a topic.

Run a search on your topic and then go to the left to see the "filters" that appear to the left in search results (we saw these earlier.)  Under "Publication Types",  select "review" and/or "systematic reviews". If a review article does not appear there, try broadening your search. (Make sure the items that come up are scholarly journal article, not books.)

Here you can see a definition of reviews and "systematic reviews".

Put the three journal articles you found into "CSE Style"

We will use the Council of Science Editors reference (CSE) style for the bibliography to put in your paper and to list in your presentation.

Say your search brought up this journal article. How do you cite it in CSE style? 

Turn to the section about journal articles on p. 4 of the Council of Science Editors reference (CSE) style guide, which says to cite the article as:



This reference is in the form: Authors. Publication year. Article title. Journal title abbreviated. Volume (Issue): Page numbers. DOI.


IMPORTANT!

Note how these elements correspond to these color-matched  elements in the article:


To render your articles in CSE style, there are two steps:

(1) use ZoteroBib to help create the citation

(2) No such tool is going to be perfect, so the second step involves editing ZoteroBib's output by checking the CSE style guide.

 


Quick note: ZoteroBib is a much simpler tool than the software Zotero.

Here is a guide about both,

Consider using Zotero for long papers. A feature of Zotero: "Of the different ways to automatically generate bibliographies (as well as in-text citations and footnotes), the easy-to-use word processor plugins are the most powerful. These plugins, available for Microsoft Word, LibreOffice, and Google Docs, create dynamic bibliographies: insert a new in-text citation in your manuscript, and the bibliography will be automatically updated to include the cited item."


First, click on ZoteroBib. Type in the article title: 

Click cite. It will say "please select a citation from the list". Check the option that corresponds to your article. If so, click it. 

You'll see a reference to the article come up, but it probably won't be for the CSE style. You'll need to select CSE style.  
 
Under "bibliography, you'll see the item cited in a citation style, but it will probably be different from CSE style (e.g., it might be Modern Language Associations (MLA) style).  Open the menu.  Click on the button that says "10,000+ other styles available". Search for the "Council of Science Editors, Name-Year (author-date)"
format. Click on "Add". Now you can select this citation style and render your article in it.

You'll see this come up:

 

NOTE:

If you need more information about ZoteroBib, see here for some youtubes:


Now check your article against the CSE style guide. For the article above, we see that ZoteroBib produced a reference that was pretty close to CSE style. You can leave out the bit about "[accessed 2023 Apr 1]" and also the URL, which CSE style says should be in the form of a "DOI", which is a unique identifier for an article. You can leave out the DOI too for this exercise! Also, ZoteroBib  didn't abbreviate the title. To do so for your articles, see the fine points below when you work on question 7.


[question 6 -- mark correct answer to the question]


[question 7] Take the three articles you found and put them into CSE style, using the guidelines in the CSE guide above.

 

Fine points:

  • You need the abbreviation of the journal. See the relevant links on the CSE guide, above. See p. 3, "Verifying how to abbreviate Journal Titles".
  • For this exercise, you do not have to add the "DOI", mentioned at the bottom of p. 2 the CSE style guide above. (This is a unique document identifier.)
  • If you have trouble finding the "issue" number, try this. Go to  scholar.google.com. Search on the title of the article.  Look for the Cite link.  You might find the issue number there.
  • See the notes on p. 3  of the CSE guide under "12. Document/article number" if you encounter the following:  "Some journal articles are assigned a document or article number. This reflects the emerging digital publishing environment when articles are numbered individually." Follow the directions there.

Finally, use the CSE style guide to do questions [8] and [9].

Note re. question [9]--you probably won't need to use it and can just rely on the CSE style guide, but note that ZoteroBib let's you do in-text citation. See this youtube.


When you are done the exercise, see below for additional things to consider doing.

Recommended post-exercise "to-do's"

SOME THINGS RECOMMENDED FOR AFTER THE EXERCISE. . .


  • SET UP AN "ILLIAD" ACCOUNT [SKIP IF YOU HAVE ALREADY DONE THIS]

Spend two minutes setting up an ILLiad account, if you have not done so already. ILLiad enables you to order articles that Lehigh does not have electronically. Lehigh will order the item for you, or scan it for you if Lehigh has it in print. In either case, you will receive an email with a link to the article. You may need to use ILLiad later in the semester or for other assignments or classes. Go here. Click on ILLiad. Fill out required one-time registration information. (If you want a tutorial, see here.)


  • REVIEW THE FOLLOWING, TO AVOID PLAGIARISM!

Citations, Summarizing, and Paraphrasing: Why Do We Cite


  • SET UP VPN  [SKIP IF YOU HAVE ALREADY DONE THIS]

If you're off campus, VPN  can help you access articles on the web that you cannot directly access otherwise. NOTE: Even with VPN on, you may be prompted for the Lehigh login and password that you use in accessing Lehigh email.   

When using the library services, make sure to select the "Library/International" option when accessing VPN. The screen where you see that option may be hiding behind another screen, so make sure to look for it!

To set up VPN, see Remote Connectivity - the Lehigh VPN.