It's not always obvious what type of "periodical" is referenced. The list below gives some clues to recognize each type but is not meant to be definitive. Science, for instance, is a magazine, but it is definitely a top scholarly journal.
Most magazines, journals, and newspapers still have a print version. Many are both print and online. Some were "born digital" and only have an online presence. It would seem to be simplest to use one citation format for all types BUT one size does not fit all. Print formats usually have volumes, issues, and pages. Online formats sometimes have volumes and even issues but often don't have pages, just links. The situation becomes more complicated when the online version may have added material that the print did not: video, color graphics, etc. Therefor, it is important to distinguish between formats so that your reader can find the reference you really cited, not a later or earlier version that has or lacks what you found important.